The Bednall Archive
Dated 11th September 2004
Re “As Time Goes By”
Post & Times, 8th September 2004
always enjoy the local and family history articles in the Post & Times and
this week I particularly enjoyed the “Names famous in the history of Leek”
article. I was pleased to see the brief account of Mr. John Cruso – a man who
is usually only mentioned because he was the husband of Mrs. Anne Cruso whose
charitable works are still remembered today.
However, I have to point out that the statement that “Mr. Cruso
continued to practise law until a few years before his death.” is
incorrect. I have in my possession
a letter written by John Cruso junior, to an unnamed person dated “Leek 29th
Sept 1847” concerning the payment of a bill in connection with the
conveyance of land for Leek’s new police station.
At the end of the letter Cruso states, “ your charges had better be
made to my brother Frank Cruso who has taken my professional Business.”
Letter Books of Challinor & Shaw show that early in March 1850, Frank Cruso
made William Beaumont Badnall, a nephew of John Cruso junior’s first wife Mrs.
Mary Elizabeth Cruso nee Badnall, a partner in the firm and retired from it.
Less than a month later Badnall entered into a partnership with Joseph and
William Challinor of Leek, to form “Challinor, Badnall and Challinor,
solicitors” which later became the firm so familiar to Leek folk -Challinor
& Shaw. On the 31st
of August 1854, Badnall married Frank Cruso’s daughter and heir Jane Elizabeth
Cruso but sadly, the happy couple returned from their honeymoon to find Frank
Cruso on the point of death and he died three days later.
Badnall remained in the partnership with the Challinors for some time but
in the 1860s he became a barrister and took up his practice in London and
although he remained in touch with his Challinor cousins and was regularly
approached for advice by them, the partnership was eventually reformed as
Challinor & Co. John Cruso
junior, who died in 1867, cannot, therefore, be said to have “continued to
practise law until a few years before his death” for he had in fact given
it up some 20 years before.
Post & Times article also stated that “The
Foxlowe stands on the site of the house”. In fact the house in which John
Cruso junior lived after his father died (August 1841) was the Foxlowe we now
know (from the market place at least). The
actual date at which it was constructed is uncertain but a document in my
possession, which was drawn up in 1811 when Thomas Mills sold the property to
John Cruso the elder, shows that it was sometime before 1774. It quotes a deed,
dated October 1774, which states that two houses belonging to William Mills,
including the one in which he lived, had been “lately pulled down and a new
house built where the houses formerly stood”.
It also quotes a deed, dated June 1780, in which the new house is
described as “all that new erected Mansion House at the top of the Market
Place in Leek“. Foxlowe must
therefore have been erected sometime before 1774. Other entries in the same
document indicate that it cannot have been built before 1743. Thus a date in the
1750s might be the best guess though I know that others (who are building
historians) in Leek will be able to date Foxlowe more precisely. Interestingly,
traces of the buildings that stood on the site before Foxlowe was built can be
found in the cellars.
Readers might also be interested
to know that John Cruso’s second wife Anne nee Searight, was visiting John
Cruso junior and his wife Mary Elizabeth at their home in what is now St. Edward
Street, Leek, when the Census was taken in June1841.
Ten years later, the Census takers found John living in the house now
called Foxlowe, a widow for just 6 months.
Alan W. Bednall
Dated 19th May 2005
Re Leek’s Missing Museum
read with concern your article on Leek’s “ missing museum” (page 4, Leek
Post & Times May 18, 2005). I
wholeheartedly support the views expressed by John Newall.
Leek’s rich heritage shouldn’t be hidden away and forgotten but
brought out, promoted, developed and used for the benefit of not only Leek folk
but also of others whose lives it would culturally enhance. The
museum would not be a dead thing –simply a place for static exhibits- but an
active catalyst for a range of cultural, educational and social activities
linked to Leek and the Moorlands of
that would benefit tourism and trade.
comprises many parts –land and townscape, buildings, paintings, documents,
pottery, photographs etc, - much of which is currently in several different
collections and is seldom used. With
adequate support and belief in the museum’s objectives, this would become a
valuable resource for Leek and the surrounding district.
Perhaps at last, the wishes of the Leek folk who presented the Nicholson
Institute to the Town and others who have donated objects, photos, etc. to the
various collections, would be satisfied.
With due respect to the
Moorland’s Council, I think their spokesperson’s comments suggest that they
have only given superficial consideration to the matter.
I’m sure that, on mature consideration, they will realize the
importance of this issue to the task of improving the lives, livelihood and well
being of the people of Leek. A museum with a well-chosen, properly funded
curator, with a clear remit, is needed –not a few display cabinets.
Letter Dated 12 May 2006
Between Rousseau And Leek
enjoyed Geoff Browne’s article “Nothing is bleak about famous memories” in
this weeks Leek Post & Times and noted in particular the reference to Jean
Jacques Rousseau’s stay at Wootton Hall.
There is an indirect Leek connection between Rousseau and Sir Walter
Scott for in May 1830, Leek born former silk manufacturer, Richard Badnall
junior, wrote a letter to Sir Walter Scott enclosing a ground plan of Kenilworth
Castle which he though might be included in Scott’s new edition of
“Kenilworth”. Scott accepted
this and included the plan together with a note (at the end of Chapter XXX)
recording his thanks to Badnall for this.
his letter to Scott, Badnall stated that the plan was “found amongst the
manuscripts of the late J.J.Rouseau’s which at the period of his departure
from England were left in the possession of Mr Davenport of Wootton Lodge,
Staffordshire”. Badnall went
on to say that all Rouseau’s manuscripts “consisting of numerous letters
to and from Dr Hume on the subject of their quarrel, various unpublished
ballads, his will, two or three Greek odes etc, were left by Mr Davenport to the
individual from whom I received them”.
junior, formerly of Ashenhurst, Leek, had been bankrupted in 1827 and had
subsequently left the town. When he wrote to Scott he was living in Liverpool
and 3 years later went into partnership with Robert Stephenson, elder brother of
George Stephenson the great railway engineer, to promote his patent undulating
railway system. Badnall died,
relatively young, in 1839 returning to Leek for burial in the family
It would be interesting to know what became of the remainder of the Rouseau material in Badnall’s hands.
Alan W. Bednall
Letter Dated 17 May 2006
Endon May Queen
of May Queens in this week’s Leek Post & Times reminded me of the late
Frank Stubbs who was long associated with the Endon Well Dressing.
He it was who drew my attention to a painting by Howard Wilson Foster R.A,.
“The May Queen”, which he said, depicted the Endon event and showed Endon
folk including some of his relatives. Frank
also thought that the girl in the painting was Rose Stephanie Badnall, niece of
Endon’s then vicar, the Reverend James Badnall but had no proof that this was
so. At Frank’s request, I
obtained a photograph of the painting (now hanging in Council Offices in
Nottingham) for him. Part of the painting is shown in the photograph below and
photographs recently obtained from a Badnall family album show that two of the
Vicar’s nieces were “Endon May Queens” one was Rose Stephanie Badnall (May
Queen 1877) and the other Annie Bertha Badnall (May Queen 1878).
Part of the latter’s dress resembles that of Foster’s “.May
Queen” but other details (sleeves etc,) differ.
So perhaps, as with the church in the background, the artist used
considerable licence in his representation of the Endon event.
The details of the staff, crown of flowers and bouquets shown in the
Badnall photographs many be of interest to readers and those more directly
involved in the Endon event and in researching its history.
Stubbs was particularly interested in the Tunstall born, artist Howard William
Foster R.A. (who lived at Chapel Croft, Stanley in 1861) and produced a little
known draft booklet telling the story of Foster’s life in Endon. It contains
brief accounts of many of the paintings and their current (1980s) whereabouts.
It would be a nice tribute to Frank and to Foster, if an exhibition of
Foster’s works could be arranged, in Leek, with Frank’s booklet being
published as part of this.
Alan W. Bednall
Letter Dated 11 October 2007
The Graveyard Behind St. Edward’s Church,
the Leek Post & Times’ “In brief” column reported a meeting of Leek
town councillors to discuss the overgrown graveyard behind St. Edward’s Church
and ways of tackling it. This additional church graveyard was established by a trust
set up in the early 1820s to provide additional space for family vaults.
The trust acquired land on Church Croft, just behind the parish church of
St. Edwards’ and sold portions of it to various families.
The Cruso family, who exerted a major influence on town affairs at this
time, purchased the largest plot and constructed (what appears to be a series of
brick lined vaults within their walled and fenced area.
Another, large, adjacent family vault (that of the Badnall family) seems
to have been constructed in a similar way and the appearance of the whole burial
ground must have been quite attractive when first completed, with wrought iron
railings around the graves as well as the site and well tended paths.
When I first visited the site some 20 years ago it was very overgrown and 6 years ago, it was not easy to get to the Badnall vault because of the brambles growing over it. The main features of the box grave were then still in reasonably good order and I thought the brambles, although a nuisance, might at least prevent vandalism. When I visited about two months ago, however, the brambles had gone (more or less) and the grave had been seriously vandalised, with a side panel, carrying the names of those interred, broken into several pieces and thrown away. I retrieved the pieces but obviously couldn’t do anything to protect them from further vandalism.
descendant of the Badnall family, who I had taken to view the grave of his
great-grandfather, agreed that something should be done to cap the grave,
restore the side panels and refit the as yet unbroken covering slab.
Both of us agreed that we would be prepared to pay for this work to be
done and I intend to contact the Council about this possibility.
Perhaps, however, the Council could incorporate this idea more generally
in any plans they might have for this area.
should they bother you may ask. In
my view, this graveyard is, potentially, a tourist attraction for Leek that
might generate significant international interest.
To be effective in this respect, more needs to be known about the people
interred there and the parts they may have played, not only in Leek, but in
national and international affairs. One
such person, about whom a great deal is known, is a Leek born man who became the
friend of and domestic chaplain to the founder of the Church of the Province of
Robert Gray, 1st Bishop of Capetown and went on to became Archdeacon
of Capetown and later, Vicar General of the CPSA. When his friend Robert Gray died, the South African clergy
chose him to be the next Bishop of Capetown and Metropolitan of the CPSA, though
this was not to be. If this was not
enough, this man in question (shown below) also played a key role in drafting
the constitution of the Church of South Africa and as 3rd Vice
Chancellor of the University of South Africa, was one of those who “ guided
the fortunes of the university in its infancy”.
of most (international) interest today, was his participation, as one of the
three prosecutors, in the excommunication of Bishop Colenso of Natal.
The Colenso affair was a major event in the history of the Anglican
Church – a mighty clash between High Church tradition and a very modern
questioning and pragmatic approach to the bible and to church matters.
It led directly to the calling of the first Lambeth Conference and the
issues raised are still relevant today. In
2007, the Colenso affair was described by Dr William Harrison, former
Vice-Principal and Professor of Theology and Anglican Studies, at The College of
Emmanuel & St. Chad, as “one remarkable in its parallels to the present
situation” when considering the challenges currently facing worldwide
The Leek man who played such
an important part in the above and is buried in Leek, was the Venerable
Archdeacon Hopkins Badnall D.D.
This family vault may also be of interest to those interested in the history of railway development in Great Britain, for Hopkins Badnall’s father Richard, the inventor of the “Undulating Railway” and partner of Robert Stephenson of Pendleton, elder brother of George Stephenson, is also buried there. I have only mentioned this family grave because it is the one I know best but I feel sure that other graves of similar if not greater importance may lie within this neglected area or in Leek’s other graveyards.
and sympathetically restored and maintained, it and other graveyards
within the town of Leek, could play a part in stimulating tourism.
An authoritative guide, encompassing architectural, social and historical
aspects of Leek’s graveyards and drafted with a view to the growing world wide
interest in family history, could, if suitably marketed and promoted, contribute
to the costs of restoration. Obviously,
they should be incorporated in any future town history trail.
graves in Leek’s graveyards should and could be, visually and in otherways, a
cultural asset for the community. Hopefully
this is already the Council’s view, unlike some other towns where, sadly, such
assets have been vandalised officially due to an incorrect understanding of
health and safety requirements and the unjustified fear of litigation.
Alan W Bednall
Dated 26th November 2008
Re “Getting Waste Facts Straight”, Page 19, Post & Times, November 26 2008
his letter “Getting Waste facts straight” C A Bestwick raised the
question of the history of The Waste on Buxton Road, Leek. As I have the Leek
Town Lands minute books (1711 to 1913) and many other related documents, in my
collection, I thought readers might find a few items concerning “The Waste”
the annual meeting of the “Trustees and Freeholders of Leek Town Lands”,
held in Leek Town Hall on 24 June 1889 it was resolved that “the Trustees
consider the desirability of acquiring the right to herbage on the land called
The Allotment near the Buxton Road, for stone getting and having it utilised for
a recreation ground”. This
was followed up during the following year and the accounts for 31 October 1890
record the payment of £150 as “purchase money for the Old Toll Gate
Cottage and garden and his rights of herbage on the waste land at Leek Edge.” Subsequent records reveal that the Trustees of the Leek
Town Lands pressed ahead with its conversion into a recreation ground,
rebuilding the wall around The Waste, felling trees, making paths, installing
seats etc. Subsequently “The Waste” appears as a separate sub-heading
in the annual accounts of expenditure until June 1900 when “The Buxton Road
Recreation Ground” is used instead as the heading.
Prior the decision to convert the Allotment or Waste, as it became known, the Trustees leased the land to various people for periods of up to 7 years. Such leases can be traced back to 1811 when the “Allotment on Leek Moor” was leased to John Fynney at an annual rent of £9 50p.
the origin of the Leek Town Lands is unknown the earliest records (1711) show
that a supervisor selected from group of the town’s leading freeholders,
administered the town Lands, aided by the Constable of Leek and later by
Surveyor of the Highways, The rents collected "for the use of the
Freeholders of Leek" being applied them in paving and repairing
Leek’s streets and later for many other purposes. This seems to have remained
broadly the position until about 1811, when the first Trustees were appointed by
the “Commissioners for the Inclosure of the Wastes and Commons of Leek”.
At the same time, the Commissioners allotted land enclosed from the waste
on Leek Moor, to the Trustees, as compensation for loss of rights of common by
the “freeholders of Leek” with respect to the Town Lands.
This was the “allotment on Leek Moor”, mentioned above, that
eventually became the Buxton Road Recreation Ground.
I do not have the Trustees’ minute book for the period from 1913 to 1947, I do
have original letters and original copy letters relating to the Trustees’
decision to offer “the cottage situate on the Waste, Buxton Road, Leek”
for £750 and also to offer “free of purchase cost, the Waste Recreation
Ground, to be kept as an open space for the use of the Public.” The offer
was made in a letter from W. Chatfield Smith, the secretary and agent to the
Trustees to S. F. Esland, Clerk to the Urban District Council, Town Hall, Leek,
on 17th July 1947. F. S.
Esland confirmed the Council’s acceptance of the offer, in an official letter
to the Trustees’ agent, dated 1st October 1947.
A Bestwick suggested that it would be a good time for the history of the waste
to be written up and if a local historian wishes to do so, I am willing to make
records in my collection available for research. An index to my collection can
be found under “Bednall Collection” on the website www.bednallarchive.info.
Anyone interested in the topic should also note that the Leek &
District Historical Society also has some Leek Town Lands material in its
archives but please contact the secretary for further information.
I have attached one or two images that you might wish to consider using in
connection with this or related letters.
A W Bednall
from Schedule published by the Leek Town Land
Trustees in 1902
Trustees’ letter offering the Waste Recreation Ground to Leek UDC
UDC letter accepting the Trustees’ offer
Leek Town Lands Trustees’ plan of the Buxton Road Recreation Ground 1947
Dated 9th June 2010
Re Proposed Development Of Land On Mill Street, Leek –Messrs Sainsbury
a local historian, I would like to know whether the existence of a second water
powered mill on land close to the Brindley Mill has been considered and adequate
arrangements made for appropriate archaeological investigation.
is clear documentary evidence for the existence of a water powered silk mill,
near the Brindley Mill, in the 18th century. Figures 1 to 3 show
extracts from one source  –an advert for the sale of a bankrupt silk
firm’s property in 1798. Details of the mill are given in Figure 2 under
“LOT XXVIII” and Figure 4 shows one artist’s view of what the silk mill
looked in about 1811 when it was occupied a drysalter- William Challinor.
sources  give the mill’s location and details of its subsequent
owners/occupants . One of these was Richard Badnall, the man who first
introduced steam power to Leek by using it in this and (slightly earlier)
another mill. It was also one of the first (possibly the first) buildings in
Leek to be lit by gas. Later, the
mill’s 19th century owners called its successor on the site “The
Hope Mill” and Figure 5 shows the site. Earlier maps show the earlier forms of
the mill and clearly indicate the line of the mill leet.
How long a mill has stood on this site is uncertain but the site was owned by some of Leek’s most successful early 18th century silkmen from at least 1723 and it is possible that they built a water powered silk mill similar to that first built by Lombe in Derby in 1714 and later copied by first a Stockport silk firm and in the late 1740s, by Charles Roe of Macclesfield. Given the very close links between the textile industries of Leek, Macclesfield and Stockport (the leading figures in the Macclesfield silk industry were or had been Leek silkmen) it is possible that Leek’s first water powered silk mill was built on the Hope Mill site in the early 1750s. Could there have been an earlier mill on the site? Leek is known to have had two mills at the Dissolution one of which became the Brindley Mill. The whereabouts of the 2nd mill is still uncertain and although it has been suggested that it was at Birchall, this has not been positively confirmed. Thus archaeological investigation and recording of the former Hope Mill site, prior to its possible destruction by Sainsbury’s proposed development, is essential if a proper understanding of the development of the silk industry in Leek and clarification of uncertainty concerning Leek’s 2nd medieval mill, is to be obtained. I hope that you will be able to confirm that this will be done.
Alan W. Bednall
My apologies for not contacting you earlier but the letter I posted to the
planning department in April (recorded delivery) was lost by Royal Mail and
sadly I failed to pick up that fact until today.
R. Duncan, Development Control Officer, Staffordshire Moorlands District
Figure1: Sale of Mellor Property in Leek 23 April 1798
Figure 2: The Mellor silk mill on Mill Lane Lynney, Leek
Figure 3: Notice of Sale of Mellor Property in Leek Printed March 1798
Figure 4: Challinor’s Drysalters’ Works Formerly Mellor’s Silk Mill
Figure 5: The Hope Silk Mill, Mill Street, Leek 1925 (formerly the site of the Mellor silk works later the Challinor Works 1811, then the Badnall silk factory (1820s) and subsequently the site of the Nathan Davenport silk mill which was eventually acquired by the Adams family who gave it this name.
1 Bednall Collection [Special] Poster advertising the sale of houses, buildings and lands in and near Leek, Staffordshire, the property of Messrs Mellor & Pratt, bankrupts, at the George Inn, Leek, on 23 April 1798.
2 Bednall Collection: BC1/219 A catalogue of the household goods, plate, linen, china, stock in trade and implements of husbandry etc. of Messrs Mellor & Pratt, Bankrupts, to be sold by auction on order of the Assignees, without reserve, upon the premises in Leek, Staffordshire. The sale to begin on Thursday 25 January 1798 and continue on the following days (Sunday excepted) till the whole are sold. This lists “Water Mill” on pages 15 and 16 : Lot 31 on the 8th day of the sale.
3 Bednall Collection: BC1/312 Draft deed of covenant, dated 5 February 1822, for the production of title deeds. Cruso & Coupland at Leek, Staffs. Covenant from John Smith Daintry of Foden Bank, Macclesfield to Richard Badnall of Leek, Staffs. silk manufacturer.“concerning a piece of land at the bottom of Mill Street, Leek on part of which a building formerly the silk mill of Messrs Mellor & Pratt and has since been used by Benjamin Challinor as a mill for grinding colours. The land adjoins the Turnpike from Leek to Macclesfield. It contains in front next the road 30 yds 1" on the Eastwardly side adjoining the Mill Tail 24 yds 30" on the back or Northern part adjoining the River Churnet 19 yds 24" on the westerly side adjoining a piece of land belonging to J. Smith Daintry called Mill Lane Lynney 27 yds 30" and is now staked out and is to be walled and fenced by Richard Badnall his heirs, etc. on all sides. Together with the building standing thereon also that piece of land at the bottom of Mill Street adjoining the Turnpike”
4 Bednall Collection : BC2/706/13 Draft security by William Young of Leek, Staffordshire, silk manufacturer to John Robinson of Westwood Hall, Leek, for money payable to the creditors of Young on the joint and several promissory notes of William Young and Thomas Robinson. Challinor & Co, Leek, 16 September 1881. The George Davenport & Co. mill is described as " all that tenement etc., consisting of four stories or otherwise situate, standing and being at the bottom of Mill Street, Leek, Staffordshire with engine house, yard and appurtenances, part whereof were formerly used as a colour mill but the same with some additions erected thereto have been and is now used as a silk factory and was formerly in the occupation of Messrs Badnall, Spilsbury & Cruso their undertenants and assigns and afterwards of George Davenport and now of William Young and Mr Henry Davenport.
There are many relevant references in the archives of the Staffordshire Record
Office including those in SRO D3359/Sutton
sub-section. See also the
deeds to the premises which trace part of the site’s history back to the 17th
Re Brindley And The Macclesfield Silk Mill
Dear Brindley Mill webmaster,
I would like to know the source of the information about the so called "Michael Daintry" mill, not that I doubt that Brindley carried out work in that Macclesfield mill. My query relates to the fact that Michael Daintry was only 2 years old in 1735 and living with his parents in Leek. This error has been repeated in several publications and may have been due to a misquotation by someone (possibly Smiles) reporting someone else who knew that Daintry had owned the mill or the mill site, at one time i.e. towards the end of the 18th century. On your website, it would be safer to simply say "a Macclesfield mill" without being specific about the type of mill. The facts of Daintry's birth and death are on his memorial stone in Leek church, in the parish registers of Leek and elsewhere. Documents relating to the silk industry, to the Daintrys and to Macclesfield burgesses, etc. can be referred to for other facts if relevant. I like your site and, as a chartered mechanical engineer, applaud all you have done at the mill and are doing to bring a knowledge of this great engineer to others.
Thank you for your email and especially for your compliments about our website and our endeavours to widen awareness of James Brindley's life and works. The source for inclusion of 'Michael Daintry's silk mill' is, as you identify, Samuel Smiles. I have modified the page (and other pages as a consequence) in response to your comments. This removes confusion about Michael Daintry owning the mill at the time James Brindley is reported to have worked on it. Clarification such as yours is always welcome and no doubt steers us closer to being a truly authoritative source of information about James Brindley. It is sad that the great man appears not to have left much written evidence of his works and whereabouts, unlike Wedgwood and Erasmus Darwin and others. Thanks to them we have anecdotal evidence with which to build a picture, to add to the few notebooks, but we suffer from much misinformation. Only last night on BBC2 a program entitled "What the Industrial Revolution Did For Us" perpetuated the claims of 'semi-literacy' and 'sleeping upon a problem until the answer presented itself' so often attributed to being characteristic of James Brindley. The internet is bringing us interesting responses. For instance, Smiles records 'a new paper-mill proposed to be erected on the River Dane' which later serious works about James Brindley extend to 'the paper mill on the River Dane at Wildboarclough' which then becomes 'a carpet mill'. A look on the map confirms that Wildboarclough is not on the River Dane and a postcard from Canada, coming into our possession as a result of the website, clearly shows that the supposed paper mill could not have become the carpet mill as it illustrates two separate mills: a small mill by the Clough Brook with a much bigger mill, where the carpets were made, in the background. The postcard itself will lead to further lines of enquiry which might just reveal more about James Brindley ... one lives in hope. The Brindley Mill website is about to be redesigned. When I originally compiled it I was green in the art of web page creation and used 'old' HTML. My intention is to finally get around to the 'Coming Soon' pages writing in XML ... which means that the whole site has to be rewritten. However, this will 'future-proof' the website and ensure its continuance on the internet, being accessible to a wider audience. (it's not disability-friendly at present!) I would welcome your opinion upon what works and what doesn't and what might be missing. Thanks again for your comments.
Brian Moran (Webmaster to the Brindley Mill)
Staffordshire Record Office, D 5600/4/3.21 August 1824 Cruso &
Trustees of Leek Additional Burial Ground –Bargain and sale of the Church
Croft, Leek, Staffordshire..
Anglican Church in South Africa was founded in 1847 with the creation of the
Diocese of Cape Town and the arrival of Bishop Gray, its first bishop. It
was called Church of the Province of South Africa, later amended to Church
of the Province of Southern Africa (C.P.S.A.). Its titular head is the
Archbishop of Cape Town known as Archbishop and Metropolitan. Today it
comprises South Africa, Mozambique, Namibia and St Helena.
M. Boucher, A Man and his work: the University’s 3rd
Vice-Chancellor. Kleio Vol.V No.1
May 1973,Dept. of History, University of South Africa UNISA
William Harrison, Custom and the national Church: The Reason Why? A paper
presented at the Huron
College Conference Faith
Seeking Understanding: The Windsor Report, the St. Michael Report & the
Challenge Ahead The
Anglican Church of Canada, January 2007.
©A.W.Bednall, Macclesfield 2010